Mouse models for studying prostate cancer bone metastasis
Jinlu Dai, Janine Hense, Ning Wang, Marianna Kruithof-de Julio & Yusuke Shiozawa
Once tumor cells metastasize to the bone, the prognosis for prostate cancer patients is generally very poor. The mechanisms involved in bone metastasis, however, remain elusive, because of lack of relevant animal models. In this manuscript, we describe step-by-step protocols for the xenograft mouse models that are currently used for studying prostate cancer bone metastasis. The different routes of tumor inoculation (intraosseous, intracardiac, intravenous and orthotopic) presented are useful for exploring the biology of bone metastasis.